Volume 3 Issue 1
Comparison of Knee and Hip Joint Angles between Land and Aquatic-Based Walking
Kee Wee Goh, Shigetada Kudo*, Khalid Abdul Jabbar, Felix Chia, Alex Ong, Ming Rong Goh
The purpose of this study was to investigate, in 3-Dimensional (3D) space, the differences in lower limb kinematics between land-based walking (WL) and aquatic-based (WA). Twenty six male subjects (58 ± 5 years, 1.68 ± 0.50 m and 70.8 ± 11.9 kg) walked at self-selected pace in both conditions. Motion capture systems were used to quantify the toe-out-angle (TOA), stride length (SL), step-width (SW) and the hip and knee joint kinematics for both conditions. SW (0.10 ± 0.05 m vs 0.07 ± 0.03 m) and TOA (14 ± 6° vs 12 ± 5°) were significantly larger for WA than WL.
Pain Tolerance and Pain Threshold According to Indoor versus Outdoor Sport Participation and Sex
Sydnee Mailey, Alex Shafer*, Nate Bickford
Differences in athletes’ pain tolerances are a continuing source of interest to many in the sports medicine fields. Numerous investigations have independently examined experimental pain in athletes, based on sex and sport played. However, few have examined the different surfaces of play (wooden floor or grass field) that may influence an athlete’s pain due to the hardness or the softness of the surface. Some athletes are able to withstand severe pain with much poise, while others react to slight pain with much stress and emotion.